The National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice maintains this website as an information clearinghouse to provide the latest research, tools and guides, best practices, and a wide variety of other resources to communities and law enforcement agencies interested in engaging in processes to reduce implicit bias, enhance procedural justice, and promote reconciliation.
Tyler, T., & Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy and Cooperation: Why Do People Help the Police Fight Crime in Their Communities?. 6 Ohio State J. Crim. L. 231.
Bradford, B., Sergeant, E., Murphy, K., & Jackson, J. (2015). A Leap of Faith? Trust in the Police Among Immigrants in England and Wales. Br J Criminol 2017; 57 (2): 381-401. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv126.
Meares, T. (2009). The Legitimacy of Police Among Young African-American Men. Marquette Law Review, 92(4) 651-666
Bradford, Ben. (2014). Policing and Social Identity: Procedural Justice, Inclusion and Cooperation Between Police and Public. Policing and Society, 24:1, 22-43, DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2012.724068
Meares, T.L., Tyler, T.R. & Gardener, J. (in press).The two different worlds we live in: Lawfulness and perceived police misconduct.
Kohler-Hausmann, I. (2014). Managerial justice and mass misdemeanors. Stanford Law Review, 66(3), 611-692.
The Sentencing Project. Disproportionate minority contact.
Tyler, T.R. & Jackson, J. (2014). Popular Legitimacy and the Exercise of Legal Authority: Motivating Compliance, Cooperation and Engagement. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 20, 78-95.
David Von Drehle, Alex Altman (2014, September 1). Inside the Tragedy of Ferguson. Time Magazine.
Lee, C.G., Cheesman, F., Rottman, D., Swaner, R., Lambson, S., Rempel, M. & Curtis, R. (2014). A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Red Hook Community Justice Center Final Report. Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts.
Kates, Graham (2014, September 6). The crisis of confidence in police-community relations. The Crime Report.
Jackson, Jonathan, Bradford, Ben, Kuha, Jouni and Hough, Mike (2014) Empirical legitimacy as two connected psychological states in Mesko, G. and Tankebe, J., (eds.) Improving Legitimacy of Criminal Justice in Emerging Democracies. London: Springer.
Durrant, M.B. (January 27, 2014). 2014 State of the judiciary address: Utah State Courts.
Elijah Anderson (2014, August 13). What caused the Ferguson riot exists in so many other cities, too. The Washington Post.
Kates, Graham (2014, September 5). Melekian: Give beat cops a voice in community policing. The Crime Report
Meares, T.L. (2014, August 22). Ferguson’s schools are just as troubling as its police force. New Republic.
Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R. (2014). The Impact of Police Stops on Precinct Robbery and Burglary Rates in New York City, 2003-2010. Justice Quarterly, 31, 132–158.
Tyler, T.R. (March, 2014). Legitimacy and procedural justice: A new element of police leadership. Police Executive Research Forum.
Crimesolutions.gov (2014). Program Profile: High Point Drum Market Intervention.
Anderson, Elijah (2014, August 13). What caused the Ferguson riot exists in so many other cities, too. Washington Post.
La Vigne, N. G., Lachman, P., Rao, S., Matthews, A. (2014). Stop and Frisk: Balancing Crime Control with Community Relations. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Beattie, G., Cohen, D., & McGuire, L. (2013). An exploration of possible unconscious ethnic biases in higher education: The role of implicit attitudes on selection for university posts. Semiotica 2013, 197, 171-201.
Richardson, L. S., & Goff, P. A. (2013). Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage. Yale Law Journal, 122, 13-24
Tyler, T.R., Fagan, J. & Geller, A. (2014). Street stops and police legitimacy: Teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization. New Haven: Yale Law School.
United States Department of Justice (June 12, 2013). Statement of interest of the United States in Floyd v. City of New York. In United States District Court, Southern District of New York.
Levin Wheller, Paul Quinton, Alistair Fildes & PC Andy Mills. (2013). The greater Manchester Police procedural justice training experiment. UK: College of Policing.
Wemmers, J.M. (2013). Victims’ experiences in the criminal justice system and their recovery from crime. International Review of Victimology, 19, 221–233.
Reisig, M.D., Tankebe, J. & Mesko, G. (2013). Compliance with the law in Slovenia: The role of procedural justice and police legitimacy. European Journal of Criminal Policy Research, 20(2), 259-276.
Goldstein, J. (August 12, 2013). Judge Rejects New York’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy. The New York Times.
Murphy, K. (2013). Does procedural justice matter to youth? Policing and Society, 25(1), 53-73.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E. & Manning, M. (2013a). Procedural justice and police legitimacy: A systematic review of the research evidence. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(3), 245-274.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J. Sargeant, E. & Manning, M. (2013b). Legitimacy in policing: A systematic review. Oslo, Norway: The Campbell Collaboration
Listwan, S.J., Sullivan, C.J., Agnew, R., Cullen, F.T. & Colvin, M. (2013). The pains of imprisonment revisited: The impact of strain on inmate recidivism. Justice Quarterly, 30(1), 144-168.
Kopenovich, S., Yanos, P., Pratt, C. & Koerner, J. (2013). Procedural justice in mental health courts: Judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 36, 113-120.
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Stanko, B. & Hold, K. (2013). Just authority?: Trust in the police in England and Wales. London: Routledge.
Jackson, J., Huq, A.Z., Bradford, B. & Tyler, T.R. (2013). Monopolizing force? Police legitimacy and public attitudes toward the acceptability of violence. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 19(4), 479-497.
Floyd et al v. The City of New York, Opinion and Order, 08 Civ. 1034 (SAS) U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. August 12, 2013.
Kohler-Hausmann, I. (2013). Misdemeanor justice: Control without conviction. American Journal of Sociology, 119, 351-393.
Statement of Interest of the United States. Floyd v. The City of New York, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Filed June 12, 2013.
Vickrey, W.C., Denton, D.G. & Jefferson, W.B. (2013). Opinions as the voice of the court: How state Supreme Courts can communicate effectively and promote procedural fairness. Harvard: Kennedy School.
Watson, A.C. & Angell, B. (2012). The role of stigma and uncertainty in moderating the effect of procedural justice on cooperation and resistance in police encounters with persons with mental illnesses. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 19(1), 30-39.
Tatar, J.R., Kaasa, S.O. & Cauffman, E. (2012). Perceptions of procedural justice among female offenders: Time does not heal all wounds. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 18, 268-296.
Stott, C., Hoggett, J. & Pearson, G. (2012). Keeping the peace: Social identity, procedural justice and the policing of football crowds. British Journal of Criminology, 52, 381-399.
Rosenbaum, D.P., & Lawrence, D.S. (2012). Teaching respectful police-citizen encounters and good decision making: Results of a randomized control trial with police recruits. Chicago: National Police Research Platform.
Papachristos, A.V., Meares, T.L., Fagan, J. (2012). Why do criminals obey the law? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102 (2), 397-440.
Myhill, A. & Bradford, B. (2012). Can police enhance confidence in improving quality of service? Policing and Society, 22(4), 397-425.
Murphy, K. & Cherney, A. (2012). Understanding cooperation with police in a diverse society. British Journal of Criminology, 52, 181-201.
Levi, M., Tyler, T.R. & Sacks, A. (2012). The reasons for compliance with law. In R. Goodman, D. Jinks & A. Wood (Eds.), Understanding Social Action, Promoting Human Rights. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Kochel, T.R. (2012). Can police legitimacy promote collective efficacy? Justice Quarterly, 29(3), 384-419.
Hohl, K., Stanko, B. & Newburn, T. (2012). The effect of the 2011 London disorder on public opinion of the police and attitudes towards crime, disorder, and sentencing. Policing, 7(1), 12-20.
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P. & Tyler, T.R. (2012). Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions. British Journal of Criminology, 52, 1051-1071.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E. & Tyler, T.R. (2012). Shaping citizen perceptions of police legitimacy: A randomized field trial of procedural justice. Criminology, 51, 1-31.
Tatar, J.R., Kaasa, S.O. & Cauffman, E. (2012). Perceptions of procedural justice among female offenders. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 18(2), 268-296.
Taylor, R.B. & Lawton, B.A. (2012). An integrated contextual model of confidence in local police. Police Quarterly, 15(4), 414-445.
Tomkins, A.J., Bornstein, B., Herian, M.N., Rosenbaum, D.I. & Neeley, E.M. (2012). Improving appearance rates. Court Review, 48, 96-106.
Mentel, Z. (2012). Racial Reconciliation, Truth Telling and Police Legitimacy. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, US Department of Justice.
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2012). Strengthening the Relationship Between Law Enforcement and Communities of Color. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Sadler, M. S., Correll, J., Park, B., & Judd, C. M. (2012). The world is not Black and White: Racial bias in the decision to shoot in a multiethnic context. Journal of Social Issues, 68(2), 286-313.
Tyler, T.R. (2011). Why people cooperate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Myhill, A. & Quinton, P. (2011). It’s a fair cop? Police legitimacy, public cooperation and crime reduction. London, UK: National Policing Improvement Agency.
Leben, S. (2011). Considering procedural fairness concepts in the courts of Utah. Paper Presented at the educational conference for the Utah State Courts, Midway, Utah.
Komarovskaya, I., Maguen, S., McCaslin, S.E., Metzler, T.J., Madan, A., Brown, A.D., Galatzer-Levy, I.R., Henn-Haase, C. and Marmar, C.R. (2011). The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(10), 1332-1336.
Judicial Council of California (2011). Procedural fairness in California: Initiatives, challenges, and recommendations. San Francisco, CA: Center for Court Innovation.
Kennedy, D. M. (2011). Don’t shoot: One man, a street fellowship, and the end of violence in inner-city America. New York, NY: Bloomsbury USA.
Jonathan-Zamir, T. & Weisburd, D. (2011). The effects of security threats on antecedents of police legitimacy: Findings from a Quasi-experiment in Israel. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50 (1), 3-32.
Ward, J.T. (2011). Caught in their own speed trap: The intersection of speed enforcement policy, police legitimacy, and decision acceptance. Police Quarterly, 14, 251-276.
Hasisi, B. & Weisburd, D. (2011). Going beyond ascribed identities: The importance of procedural justice in airport security screening in Israel. Law and Society Review, 45(4), 867-892.
Wylie, L., Gibson, C., Brank, E.M., Fondacaro, M.R., Smith, S., Brown, V.E., & Miller, S.A. (2010). Assessing school and student predictors of weapons reporting. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 8, 351-372.
Peffley, M. & Hurwitz, J. (2010). Justice in America: The separate realities of Blacks and Whites. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kubrin, Charis E., Steven F. Messner, Glenn Deane, Kelly McGeever, Thomas D. Stucky (2010), Proactive Policing and Robbery Rates Across U.S. Cities. Criminology, 48(1): 57-97.
Wales, H.W., Hiday, V.A. & Ray, B. (2010). Procedural justice and the mental health court judge’s role in reducing recidivism. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 33, 265-271.
Hough, M., Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Myhill, A., & Quinton, P. (2010). Procedural justice, trust, and institutional legitimacy. Policing, 4(3), 203-210.
Kennedy, D. M. (2010). Practice Brief: Norms, Narratives, and Community Engagement for Crime Prevention. New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice.
Alexander, M. (2011). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press.
Bayley, D. & Nixon, C. (2010). The changing environment for policing, 1985-2008. New Perspectives in Policing. Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management.
Tyler, T.R. (2009). Legitimacy and criminal justice: The benefits of self-regulation. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7, 307-359.
Tankebe, J. (2009). Self-help, policing, and procedural justice: Ghanaian vigilantism and the rule of law. Law and Society Review, 43(2), 245-270.
Reisig, M.D. & Mesko, G. (2009). Procedural justice, legitimacy and prisoner misconduct. Psychology, Crime and Law, 15(1), 41-59.
Murphy, K., Tyler, T.R., & Curtis, A. (2009). Nurturing regulatory compliance: Is procedural justice effective when people question the legitimacy of the law? Regulation and Governance, 3(1), 1-26.
Hinds, L. (2009). Youth, police legitimacy and informal contact. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 24(1), 10-21.
Hinds, L. & Murphy, K. (2007). Public satisfaction with police: Using procedural justice to improve police legitimacy. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(1), 27-42.
Norman, J. (2009). Seen and Not Heard. Young People’s Perceptions of the police. Policing, 3(4), 364-372.
Reisig, M.D. & Lloyd, C. (2009). Procedural justice, police legitimacy, and helping the police fight crime. Police Quarterly, 12(1), 42-62.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., & Manning, M. (2009). Legitimacy in policing. Research Preview. Brisbane, Queensland: ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security.
Papachristos, A. V. (2009). Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and the Social Structure of Gang Homicide. American Journal of Sociology, 115(1), 74-128.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, US Dept of Justice, & United States of America. (2009). Disproportionate Minority Contact.
Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 292-306.
Stuart, J., Fondarcaro, M., Miller, S.A., Brown, V. & Brank, E.M. (2008). Procedural justice in family conflict resolution and deviant peer group involvement among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(6), 674-684.
Murphy, K., Hinds, L. & Fleming, J. (2008). Encouraging public cooperation and support for police. Policing and Society, 18(2), 136-155.
Murphy, K. & Tyler, T.R. (2008). Procedural justice and compliance behaviour: The mediating role of emotions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(4), 652-668.
Tyler, T.R. & Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy And Cooperation: Why do people help the police fight crime in their communities? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6, 231-275.
Kennedy, D. M. (2008). Drugs, Race and Common Ground: Reflections on the High Point Intervention. National Institute of Justice Journal, 262, 12-17.
Murphy, K., Hinds, L., & Fleming, J. (2008). Encouraging public cooperation and support for police. Policing & Society, 18(2), 136-155.
Tyler, T. R., & Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy and cooperation: Why do people help the police fight crime in their communities. Ohio St. J. Crim. L., 6, 231-275.
Abuwala, R. & Farole, D.J. (2008). The effects of the Harlem housing court on tenant perceptions of justice. New York: NY Center for Court Innovation.
Tyler, T. R. (Ed.). (2007). Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: An International Perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tyler, T.R., Sherman, L.W., Strang, H., Barnes, G.C. & Woods, D.J. (2007). Reintegrative shaming, procedural justice, and recidivism: The engagement of offenders’ psychological mechanisms in the Canberra RISE drinking-and-driving experiment. Law and Society Review, 41(3), 553-586.
Lentz, S.A. & Chaires, R.H. (2007). The invention of Peel’s principles: A study of policing “textbook” history. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(1), 69-79.
Hinds, L. (2007). Building police-youth relationships: The importance of procedural justice. Youth Justice, 7(3), 195-209.
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